How Does A Trapezium Mill Work

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MODULE #5: FUNCTIONAL PERFOMANCE OF BALL MILLING

2018-12-9  In a ball mill circuit, the "output" can be defined as the production rate of fines of the circuit. As for any output, ball mill circuit output is a function of both its inputs and efficiencies. There are two "inputs" to a ball mill circuit: the ore fed to the circuit and the power delivered by the grinding mill.2018-12-9  In a ball mill circuit, the "output" can be defined as the production rate of fines of the circuit. As for any output, ball mill circuit output is a function of both its inputs and efficiencies. There are two "inputs" to a ball mill circuit: the ore fed to the circuit and the power delivered by the grinding mill.

Jaw Crusher Function Of Toggle And Lining Material ...

Toggle plate is of safety function. jaw plate and the liner plate. The material is discharged Jaw Crusher – Double Toggle Oil Type Jaw Crusher, Double Toggle plate is of safety function. jaw plate and the liner plate. The material is discharged Jaw Crusher – Double Toggle Oil Type Jaw Crusher, Double

Function and Wear Analysis of Ball Mill liner, how to ...

2019-7-10  The working principle of the ball mill is to use the cylinder to rotate, and according to the actual needs of the operation, the steel ball is raised to a certain height and then dropped by parabola to impact the material in the cylinder, so that the material and the liner can be fully rubbed.2019-7-10  The working principle of the ball mill is to use the cylinder to rotate, and according to the actual needs of the operation, the steel ball is raised to a certain height and then dropped by parabola to impact the material in the cylinder, so that the material and the liner can be fully rubbed.

Ball Mill: Operating principles, components, Uses ...

2020-7-5  A ball mill also known as pebble mill or tumbling mill is a milling machine that consists of a hallow cylinder containing balls; mounted on a metallic frame such that it can be rotated along its longitudinal axis. The balls which could be of different diameter occupy 30 – 50 % of the mill volume and its size depends on the feed and mill 2020-7-5  A ball mill also known as pebble mill or tumbling mill is a milling machine that consists of a hallow cylinder containing balls; mounted on a metallic frame such that it can be rotated along its longitudinal axis. The balls which could be of different diameter occupy 30 – 50 % of the mill volume and its size depends on the feed and mill

Retsch : 球磨仪 : TM 500 : 功能和特性

滚筒式研磨仪TM 500. The Drum Mill TM 500 is a laboratory ball mill designed to grind large sample volumes up to 35 l. It accepts initial feed sizes of up to 20 mm and can achieve grind sizes down to 15 µm by friction and impact. Hard, brittle or fibrous samples are pulverized in the 150 l 滚筒式研磨仪TM 500. The Drum Mill TM 500 is a laboratory ball mill designed to grind large sample volumes up to 35 l. It accepts initial feed sizes of up to 20 mm and can achieve grind sizes down to 15 µm by friction and impact. Hard, brittle or fibrous samples are pulverized in the 150 l

function of ball mill in making ore -

Function of ball mill in ore manufacturing process. Ball mill - wikipedia 2019-11-2 the ball mill is a key piece of equipment for grinding crushed materials and it is widely used in production lines for powders such as cement sili es refractory material fertilizer glass ceramics etc as well as.Function of ball mill in ore manufacturing process. Ball mill - wikipedia 2019-11-2 the ball mill is a key piece of equipment for grinding crushed materials and it is widely used in production lines for powders such as cement sili es refractory material fertilizer glass ceramics etc as well as.

Ball Mills - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

8.3.2.2 Ball mills. The ball mill is a tumbling mill that uses steel balls as the grinding media. The length of the cylindrical shell is usually 1–1.5 times the shell diameter ( Figure 8.11). The feed can be dry, with less than 3% moisture to minimize ball coating, or slurry containing 20–40% water by weight.8.3.2.2 Ball mills. The ball mill is a tumbling mill that uses steel balls as the grinding media. The length of the cylindrical shell is usually 1–1.5 times the shell diameter ( Figure 8.11). The feed can be dry, with less than 3% moisture to minimize ball coating, or slurry containing 20–40% water by weight.

EFFECT OF BALL SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON MILLING

2016-6-14  2.4 Cumulative breakage function versus relative size 28 2.5 Predicted variation of S i values with ball diameter for dry grinding of quartz 31 2.6 Breakage zones identified in a ball load profile 33 2.7 Breakage function of a 850×650 microns normalizable quartz under various mill load conditions (D=195 mm, d=25.4 mm, c=0.7) 412016-6-14  2.4 Cumulative breakage function versus relative size 28 2.5 Predicted variation of S i values with ball diameter for dry grinding of quartz 31 2.6 Breakage zones identified in a ball load profile 33 2.7 Breakage function of a 850×650 microns normalizable quartz under various mill load conditions (D=195 mm, d=25.4 mm, c=0.7) 41

Simulation of a ball mill operating with a low ball

Energy specific selection function parameters. The energy specific selection function was determined in the torque mill operating under the same operational conditions except for the ball size distribution. The Bond equilibrium ball size distribution was used because the ball sampling campaign did not achieve the desired accuracy.Energy specific selection function parameters. The energy specific selection function was determined in the torque mill operating under the same operational conditions except for the ball size distribution. The Bond equilibrium ball size distribution was used because the ball sampling campaign did not achieve the desired accuracy.

The specific selection function effect on clinker grinding ...

2013-7-19  tumbling balls, the torque of the empty mill (which represent bearings losses, etc.) must be deducted from the gross torque readings. The ball load (9.5 kg) filled the mill to 45% of its volume. The feed charge was held constant at 874 g, which occupied 80% of the void space between the balls at rest.2013-7-19  tumbling balls, the torque of the empty mill (which represent bearings losses, etc.) must be deducted from the gross torque readings. The ball load (9.5 kg) filled the mill to 45% of its volume. The feed charge was held constant at 874 g, which occupied 80% of the void space between the balls at rest.

Ball Mill: Operating principles, components, Uses ...

2020-7-5  A ball mill also known as pebble mill or tumbling mill is a milling machine that consists of a hallow cylinder containing balls; mounted on a metallic frame such that it can be rotated along its longitudinal axis. The balls which could be of different diameter occupy 30 – 50 % of the mill volume and its size depends on the feed and mill 2020-7-5  A ball mill also known as pebble mill or tumbling mill is a milling machine that consists of a hallow cylinder containing balls; mounted on a metallic frame such that it can be rotated along its longitudinal axis. The balls which could be of different diameter occupy 30 – 50 % of the mill volume and its size depends on the feed and mill

Function and Wear Analysis of Ball Mill liner, how to ...

2019-7-10  Ball mill is an important equipment for the preparation of various powder materials in metallurgy, mineral processing, building materials, chemical industry, power generation, ceramics and other industrial departments. The inner surface of the ball mill cylinder is generally equipped with various shapes of liner. Liner is the main vulnerable part of ball mill, and its use cost is about 2% ≤ ...2019-7-10  Ball mill is an important equipment for the preparation of various powder materials in metallurgy, mineral processing, building materials, chemical industry, power generation, ceramics and other industrial departments. The inner surface of the ball mill cylinder is generally equipped with various shapes of liner. Liner is the main vulnerable part of ball mill, and its use cost is about 2% ≤ ...

Retsch : 球磨仪 : TM 500 : 功能和特性

滚筒式研磨仪TM 500. The Drum Mill TM 500 is a laboratory ball mill designed to grind large sample volumes up to 35 l. It accepts initial feed sizes of up to 20 mm and can achieve grind sizes down to 15 µm by friction and impact. Hard, brittle or fibrous samples are pulverized in the 150 l 滚筒式研磨仪TM 500. The Drum Mill TM 500 is a laboratory ball mill designed to grind large sample volumes up to 35 l. It accepts initial feed sizes of up to 20 mm and can achieve grind sizes down to 15 µm by friction and impact. Hard, brittle or fibrous samples are pulverized in the 150 l

function of ball mill in making ore -

Function Of Ball Mill Machine For Gold Ore Function of ball mill in ore manufacturing process. Ball mill - wikipedia 2019-11-2 the ball mill is a key piece of equipment for grinding crushed materials and it is widely used in production lines for powders such as cement sili es refractory material fertilizer glass ceramics etc as well as.Function Of Ball Mill Machine For Gold Ore Function of ball mill in ore manufacturing process. Ball mill - wikipedia 2019-11-2 the ball mill is a key piece of equipment for grinding crushed materials and it is widely used in production lines for powders such as cement sili es refractory material fertilizer glass ceramics etc as well as.

Ball Mills - Mine Engineer.Com

2012-11-26  Ball Mills are generally used to grind material 1/4 inch and finer, down to the particle size of 20 to 75 microns. To achieve a reasonable efficiency with ball mills, they must be operated in a closed system, with oversize material continuously being recirculated back into the mill to be reduced. Various classifiers, such as screens, spiral ...2012-11-26  Ball Mills are generally used to grind material 1/4 inch and finer, down to the particle size of 20 to 75 microns. To achieve a reasonable efficiency with ball mills, they must be operated in a closed system, with oversize material continuously being recirculated back into the mill to be reduced. Various classifiers, such as screens, spiral ...

The operating principle of the ball mill -

2017-2-8  The operating principle of the ball mill consists of following steps. In a continuously operating ball mill, feed material fed through the central hole one of the caps into the drum and moves therealong, being exposed by grinding media. The material 2017-2-8  The operating principle of the ball mill consists of following steps. In a continuously operating ball mill, feed material fed through the central hole one of the caps into the drum and moves therealong, being exposed by grinding media. The material

Ball Mills - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

8.3.2.2 Ball mills. The ball mill is a tumbling mill that uses steel balls as the grinding media. The length of the cylindrical shell is usually 1–1.5 times the shell diameter ( Figure 8.11). The feed can be dry, with less than 3% moisture to minimize ball coating, or slurry containing 20–40% water by weight.8.3.2.2 Ball mills. The ball mill is a tumbling mill that uses steel balls as the grinding media. The length of the cylindrical shell is usually 1–1.5 times the shell diameter ( Figure 8.11). The feed can be dry, with less than 3% moisture to minimize ball coating, or slurry containing 20–40% water by weight.

The specific selection function effect on clinker grinding ...

2013-7-19  versus particle size for different ball diameters in Fig.1. Similar trends with respect to the variation of the selection function S i versus ball size were reported by (Austin et al., 1984). The optimum values obtained for 10, 20 and 30 mm ball diameter are about 0.45, 0.83 and 1.8 mm.2013-7-19  versus particle size for different ball diameters in Fig.1. Similar trends with respect to the variation of the selection function S i versus ball size were reported by (Austin et al., 1984). The optimum values obtained for 10, 20 and 30 mm ball diameter are about 0.45, 0.83 and 1.8 mm.

Autogenous and Semi-Autogenous Mills - ScienceDirect

2016-1-1  The relation between mill load and relative mill power follows the same pattern as the mill load–mill power relation, as shown in Figure 9.9. Figure 9.11 illustrates this relationship for 6 and 12% ball loads, taking 2.8 as the S.G. of the ore and 8.0 t/m 3 as the density of the balls.2016-1-1  The relation between mill load and relative mill power follows the same pattern as the mill load–mill power relation, as shown in Figure 9.9. Figure 9.11 illustrates this relationship for 6 and 12% ball loads, taking 2.8 as the S.G. of the ore and 8.0 t/m 3 as the density of the balls.

First-order and second-order breakage rate of coarse ...

2015-11-11  Mill Grinding tests were performed in a 20 cm×20 cm stainless steel laboratory mill. It was operated at the constant speed of 85 rpm (84 % of the critical speed). The mill charge consisted of stainless steel balls with 16 and 42 mm diameter and the total ball load weighed 8.79 kg. The volume of the ball charge with voids was 25% of the total2015-11-11  Mill Grinding tests were performed in a 20 cm×20 cm stainless steel laboratory mill. It was operated at the constant speed of 85 rpm (84 % of the critical speed). The mill charge consisted of stainless steel balls with 16 and 42 mm diameter and the total ball load weighed 8.79 kg. The volume of the ball charge with voids was 25% of the total

Ball Mill Liner Function Wear Parts For Industry ...

Ball Mill Liner Function. Ball mill is a major equipment in the production of power plants, cement plants, mines, chemical industry, metallurgy and other industries, the liner is one of the components of the mill, the main role is to protect the cylinder, the cylinder from the grinding body and Material direct impact and friction, help to improve the mill Ball Mill Liner Function. Ball mill is a major equipment in the production of power plants, cement plants, mines, chemical industry, metallurgy and other industries, the liner is one of the components of the mill, the main role is to protect the cylinder, the cylinder from the grinding body and Material direct impact and friction, help to improve the mill

Retsch : 球磨仪 : TM 500 : 功能和特性

滚筒式研磨仪TM 500. The Drum Mill TM 500 is a laboratory ball mill designed to grind large sample volumes up to 35 l. It accepts initial feed sizes of up to 20 mm and can achieve grind sizes down to 15 µm by friction and impact. Hard, brittle or fibrous samples are pulverized in the 150 l 滚筒式研磨仪TM 500. The Drum Mill TM 500 is a laboratory ball mill designed to grind large sample volumes up to 35 l. It accepts initial feed sizes of up to 20 mm and can achieve grind sizes down to 15 µm by friction and impact. Hard, brittle or fibrous samples are pulverized in the 150 l

Ball Mill: Operating principles, components, Uses ...

2020-7-5  A ball mill also known as pebble mill or tumbling mill is a milling machine that consists of a hallow cylinder containing balls; mounted on a metallic frame such that it can be rotated along its longitudinal axis. The balls which could be of different diameter occupy 30 – 50 % of the mill volume and its size depends on the feed and mill 2020-7-5  A ball mill also known as pebble mill or tumbling mill is a milling machine that consists of a hallow cylinder containing balls; mounted on a metallic frame such that it can be rotated along its longitudinal axis. The balls which could be of different diameter occupy 30 – 50 % of the mill volume and its size depends on the feed and mill

Ball Mills - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

8.3.2.2 Ball mills. The ball mill is a tumbling mill that uses steel balls as the grinding media. The length of the cylindrical shell is usually 1–1.5 times the shell diameter ( Figure 8.11). The feed can be dry, with less than 3% moisture to minimize ball coating, or slurry containing 20–40% water by weight.8.3.2.2 Ball mills. The ball mill is a tumbling mill that uses steel balls as the grinding media. The length of the cylindrical shell is usually 1–1.5 times the shell diameter ( Figure 8.11). The feed can be dry, with less than 3% moisture to minimize ball coating, or slurry containing 20–40% water by weight.

A Review of Advanced Ball Mill Modelling

2017-1-10  the breakage rate or selection function (S i) to predict grinding in a batch mill using the equation (Austin et al., 1984) 1 1 d d i i i i j ij j j w Sw Sbw t (2) where w i is the fraction of particles in size class i at time t and b ij is the breakage function in density form, so that b ij = B ij – B i–1,j.2017-1-10  the breakage rate or selection function (S i) to predict grinding in a batch mill using the equation (Austin et al., 1984) 1 1 d d i i i i j ij j j w Sw Sbw t (2) where w i is the fraction of particles in size class i at time t and b ij is the breakage function in density form, so that b ij = B ij – B i–1,j.

AMIT 135: Lesson 7 Ball Mills Circuits – Mining Mill ...

It is generally accepted that practical mill power (PM ) is a function of mill capacity and diameter, i.e.,P M = Mill Constant * (Mill Diameter ) n where n = 0.3 to 0.5. It is evident that mill power is a function of the height at which the media is lifted and the density of the media, i.e., PM = K Ï b LD 2.5 where k is a proportionality constant.It is generally accepted that practical mill power (PM ) is a function of mill capacity and diameter, i.e.,P M = Mill Constant * (Mill Diameter ) n where n = 0.3 to 0.5. It is evident that mill power is a function of the height at which the media is lifted and the density of the media, i.e., PM = K Ï b LD 2.5 where k is a proportionality constant.

Autogenous and Semi-Autogenous Mills - ScienceDirect

2016-1-1  The relation between mill load and relative mill power follows the same pattern as the mill load–mill power relation, as shown in Figure 9.9. Figure 9.11 illustrates this relationship for 6 and 12% ball loads, taking 2.8 as the S.G. of the ore and 8.0 t/m 3 as the density of the balls.2016-1-1  The relation between mill load and relative mill power follows the same pattern as the mill load–mill power relation, as shown in Figure 9.9. Figure 9.11 illustrates this relationship for 6 and 12% ball loads, taking 2.8 as the S.G. of the ore and 8.0 t/m 3 as the density of the balls.

Ball tube mill - SlideShare

2017-12-12  ball tube mill 1. content • an over view of balltube mill • instrumentation involved in balltube mill 2. an over view of balltube mill • mill operation principlemill operation principle • primary airprimary air • motor pumpsmotor pumps • girth gear systemgirth gear system • advantages advantages disadvantages of balltubedisadvantages of ball2017-12-12  ball tube mill 1. content • an over view of balltube mill • instrumentation involved in balltube mill 2. an over view of balltube mill • mill operation principlemill operation principle • primary airprimary air • motor pumpsmotor pumps • girth gear systemgirth gear system • advantages advantages disadvantages of balltubedisadvantages of ball

Silicon Powder Properties Produced in a Planetary Ball ...

2020-1-15  Mechanical milling is a promising route for production of submicron and nano sized silicon powders, but it is challenging to predict and control the product properties. In this study a metallurgical grade silicon quality was milled in a planetary ball mill and the properties of the powder were investigated as a function of grinding time, grinding bead size (20 mm, 2 mm, 0.25 mm) and rotational ...2020-1-15  Mechanical milling is a promising route for production of submicron and nano sized silicon powders, but it is challenging to predict and control the product properties. In this study a metallurgical grade silicon quality was milled in a planetary ball mill and the properties of the powder were investigated as a function of grinding time, grinding bead size (20 mm, 2 mm, 0.25 mm) and rotational ...

First-order and second-order breakage rate of coarse ...

2015-11-11  Mill Grinding tests were performed in a 20 cm×20 cm stainless steel laboratory mill. It was operated at the constant speed of 85 rpm (84 % of the critical speed). The mill charge consisted of stainless steel balls with 16 and 42 mm diameter and the total ball load weighed 8.79 kg. The volume of the ball charge with voids was 25% of the total2015-11-11  Mill Grinding tests were performed in a 20 cm×20 cm stainless steel laboratory mill. It was operated at the constant speed of 85 rpm (84 % of the critical speed). The mill charge consisted of stainless steel balls with 16 and 42 mm diameter and the total ball load weighed 8.79 kg. The volume of the ball charge with voids was 25% of the total

Ball Mill Liner Function Wear Parts For Industry ...

Ball Mill Liner Function. Ball mill is a major equipment in the production of power plants, cement plants, mines, chemical industry, metallurgy and other industries, the liner is one of the components of the mill, the main role is to protect the cylinder, the cylinder from the grinding body and Material direct impact and friction, help to improve the mill Ball Mill Liner Function. Ball mill is a major equipment in the production of power plants, cement plants, mines, chemical industry, metallurgy and other industries, the liner is one of the components of the mill, the main role is to protect the cylinder, the cylinder from the grinding body and Material direct impact and friction, help to improve the mill

Ball Mill: Operating principles, components, Uses ...

2020-7-5  A ball mill also known as pebble mill or tumbling mill is a milling machine that consists of a hallow cylinder containing balls; mounted on a metallic frame such that it can be rotated along its longitudinal axis. The balls which could be of different diameter occupy 30 – 50 % of the mill volume and its size depends on the feed and mill 2020-7-5  A ball mill also known as pebble mill or tumbling mill is a milling machine that consists of a hallow cylinder containing balls; mounted on a metallic frame such that it can be rotated along its longitudinal axis. The balls which could be of different diameter occupy 30 – 50 % of the mill volume and its size depends on the feed and mill

AMIT 135: Lesson 7 Ball Mills Circuits – Mining Mill ...

It is generally accepted that practical mill power (PM ) is a function of mill capacity and diameter, i.e.,P M = Mill Constant * (Mill Diameter ) n where n = 0.3 to 0.5. It is evident that mill power is a function of the height at which the media is lifted and the density of the media, i.e., PM = K Ï b LD 2.5 where k is a proportionality constant.It is generally accepted that practical mill power (PM ) is a function of mill capacity and diameter, i.e.,P M = Mill Constant * (Mill Diameter ) n where n = 0.3 to 0.5. It is evident that mill power is a function of the height at which the media is lifted and the density of the media, i.e., PM = K Ï b LD 2.5 where k is a proportionality constant.

The function of grinding ball mill liner

Ball mill is important equipment in the ore beneficiation production line. Its grinding effect mainly depends on the rotary motion of the cylinder. The ball mill lining board is used to bring the stones to the high point for downward throwing motion. It impacts the ball mill lining board to achieve the function of Ball mill is important equipment in the ore beneficiation production line. Its grinding effect mainly depends on the rotary motion of the cylinder. The ball mill lining board is used to bring the stones to the high point for downward throwing motion. It impacts the ball mill lining board to achieve the function of

Ball Mills - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

8.3.2.2 Ball mills. The ball mill is a tumbling mill that uses steel balls as the grinding media. The length of the cylindrical shell is usually 1–1.5 times the shell diameter ( Figure 8.11). The feed can be dry, with less than 3% moisture to minimize ball coating, or slurry containing 20–40% water by weight.8.3.2.2 Ball mills. The ball mill is a tumbling mill that uses steel balls as the grinding media. The length of the cylindrical shell is usually 1–1.5 times the shell diameter ( Figure 8.11). The feed can be dry, with less than 3% moisture to minimize ball coating, or slurry containing 20–40% water by weight.

A Review of Advanced Ball Mill Modelling

2017-1-10  the breakage rate or selection function (S i) to predict grinding in a batch mill using the equation (Austin et al., 1984) 1 1 d d i i i i j ij j j w Sw Sbw t (2) where w i is the fraction of particles in size class i at time t and b ij is the breakage function in density form, so that b ij = B ij – B i–1,j.2017-1-10  the breakage rate or selection function (S i) to predict grinding in a batch mill using the equation (Austin et al., 1984) 1 1 d d i i i i j ij j j w Sw Sbw t (2) where w i is the fraction of particles in size class i at time t and b ij is the breakage function in density form, so that b ij = B ij – B i–1,j.

Autogenous and Semi-Autogenous Mills - ScienceDirect

2016-1-1  The relation between mill load and relative mill power follows the same pattern as the mill load–mill power relation, as shown in Figure 9.9. Figure 9.11 illustrates this relationship for 6 and 12% ball loads, taking 2.8 as the S.G. of the ore and 8.0 t/m 3 as the density of the balls.2016-1-1  The relation between mill load and relative mill power follows the same pattern as the mill load–mill power relation, as shown in Figure 9.9. Figure 9.11 illustrates this relationship for 6 and 12% ball loads, taking 2.8 as the S.G. of the ore and 8.0 t/m 3 as the density of the balls.

Experimental Study on the Grinding Rate Constant of a

We investigated tlte effects of ball diameter and feed size on the rate constant when the ball mass, feed mass, and the mill's rotational speed were constant. The results indicated that the grinding rate constant can be expressed by modifying the equation that was proposed by Snow as the function of ball We investigated tlte effects of ball diameter and feed size on the rate constant when the ball mass, feed mass, and the mill's rotational speed were constant. The results indicated that the grinding rate constant can be expressed by modifying the equation that was proposed by Snow as the function of ball

Silicon Powder Properties Produced in a Planetary Ball ...

2020-1-15  Mechanical milling is a promising route for production of submicron and nano sized silicon powders, but it is challenging to predict and control the product properties. In this study a metallurgical grade silicon quality was milled in a planetary ball mill and the properties of the powder were investigated as a function of grinding time, grinding bead size (20 mm, 2 mm, 0.25 mm) and rotational ...2020-1-15  Mechanical milling is a promising route for production of submicron and nano sized silicon powders, but it is challenging to predict and control the product properties. In this study a metallurgical grade silicon quality was milled in a planetary ball mill and the properties of the powder were investigated as a function of grinding time, grinding bead size (20 mm, 2 mm, 0.25 mm) and rotational ...

全自动冷冻研磨仪Cryomill--德国RETSCH(莱驰)全自动冷冻 ...

全自动冷冻研磨仪Cryomill专为低温冷冻研磨设计。在样品研磨之前,先进的预冷却程序可持续自动地用液氮冷冻研磨罐,使样品变脆,并防止样品中挥发性物质的挥发。样品的研磨过程液氮的消耗和补充由程序自动完成,控制研磨环境始终处在-196℃低温下。全自动冷冻研磨仪Cryomill专为低温冷冻研磨设计。在样品研磨之前,先进的预冷却程序可持续自动地用液氮冷冻研磨罐,使样品变脆,并防止样品中挥发性物质的挥发。样品的研磨过程液氮的消耗和补充由程序自动完成,控制研磨环境始终处在-196℃低温下。