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Direct reduced iron process - tec-science

21/06/2018  In the direct-reduced iron (DRI) process, the iron ores are reduced directly to sponge iron by gaseous reducing agents! Electro-steel process In the electric steel process , the sponge iron obtained from the direct reduced iron process is used for crude steel making.21/06/2018  In the direct-reduced iron (DRI) process, the iron ores are reduced directly to sponge iron by gaseous reducing agents! Electro-steel process In the electric steel process , the sponge iron obtained from the direct reduced iron process is used for crude steel making.

Direct reduced iron - Wikipedia

Direct reduction processes can be divided roughly into two categories: gas-based, and coal-based. In both cases, the objective of the process is to remove the oxygen contained in various forms of iron ore (sized ore, concentrates, pellets, mill scale, furnace dust, etc.), in order to convert the ore to metallic iron, without melting it (below 1,200 °C (2,190 °F)). The direct reduction process is comparatively energy efficient. Steelmade using DRI requires significantDirect reduction processes can be divided roughly into two categories: gas-based, and coal-based. In both cases, the objective of the process is to remove the oxygen contained in various forms of iron ore (sized ore, concentrates, pellets, mill scale, furnace dust, etc.), in order to convert the ore to metallic iron, without melting it (below 1,200 °C (2,190 °F)). The direct reduction process is comparatively energy efficient. Steelmade using DRI requires significant

Direct-Reduced Iron - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

05/01/2012  Direct-Reduced Iron Iron Resources and Direct Iron Production. DRI can be produced in powder, pellet, lump, or briquette form. The powder,... The Direct Reduction of Iron. Thomas Battle, ... ... Coal can also be directly used as a reducing agent without going... Coal use in iron and steel ...05/01/2012  Direct-Reduced Iron Iron Resources and Direct Iron Production. DRI can be produced in powder, pellet, lump, or briquette form. The powder,... The Direct Reduction of Iron. Thomas Battle, ... ... Coal can also be directly used as a reducing agent without going... Coal use in iron and steel ...

Direct-Reduced Iron Process (DRI) NIPPON STEEL

Direct-Reduced Iron Process (DRI) NIPPON STEEL ENGINEERING CO., LTD. provides new iron source technology that enables the achievement of productivity improvements, operational cost reductions, CO 2 emissions reductions, and capital investment reductions through the optimal combination of Tenova HYL and Danieli's natural gas-based direct-reduced ...Direct-Reduced Iron Process (DRI) NIPPON STEEL ENGINEERING CO., LTD. provides new iron source technology that enables the achievement of productivity improvements, operational cost reductions, CO 2 emissions reductions, and capital investment reductions through the optimal combination of Tenova HYL and Danieli's natural gas-based direct-reduced ...

Direct Reduction Process - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Direct Reduction Process Quality requirements of iron ore for iron production. In a DR process, iron ore pellets and/or lump iron ores are... Ironmaking. Yongxiang Yang, ... ... Several methods have been used over the past 50 years to produce DRI [ 43, 47, 48]. Iron Resources and Direct Iron ...Direct Reduction Process Quality requirements of iron ore for iron production. In a DR process, iron ore pellets and/or lump iron ores are... Ironmaking. Yongxiang Yang, ... ... Several methods have been used over the past 50 years to produce DRI [ 43, 47, 48]. Iron Resources and Direct Iron ...

Direct Reduced Iron and its Production Processes – IspatGuru

16/03/2013  Direct reduced iron (DRI) is the product which is produced by the direct reduction of iron ore or other iron bearing materials in the solid state by using non-coking coal or natural gas. Processes which produce DRI by reduction of iron ore below the melting point of the iron are normally known as the direct reduction (DR) processes.16/03/2013  Direct reduced iron (DRI) is the product which is produced by the direct reduction of iron ore or other iron bearing materials in the solid state by using non-coking coal or natural gas. Processes which produce DRI by reduction of iron ore below the melting point of the iron are normally known as the direct reduction (DR) processes.

Direct Reduced Iron Industrial Efficiency Technology ...

19 行  Direct Reduced Iron (DRI), also known as Sponge Iron, offers an alternative steel production 19 行  Direct Reduced Iron (DRI), also known as Sponge Iron, offers an alternative steel production

Direct Reduced Iron and its Production Processes –

16/03/2013  Direct Reduced Iron and its Production Processes. satyendra; March 16, 2013; 11 Comments ; DR process, DRI, HBI, Iron making. Metallization, reformed natural gas, residual elements, Rotary kiln, Direct Reduced Iron and its Production Processes. Direct reduced iron (DRI) is the product which is produced by the direct reduction of iron ore or other iron bearing materials in the solid state 16/03/2013  Direct Reduced Iron and its Production Processes. satyendra; March 16, 2013; 11 Comments ; DR process, DRI, HBI, Iron making. Metallization, reformed natural gas, residual elements, Rotary kiln, Direct Reduced Iron and its Production Processes. Direct reduced iron (DRI) is the product which is produced by the direct reduction of iron ore or other iron bearing materials in the solid state

Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) International Iron Metallics ...

Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) is the product of the direct reduction of iron ore in the solid state by carbon monoxide and hydrogen derived from natural gas or coal. See more information about the production of DRI. Most gas-based direct reduction plants are part of integrated steel mini-mills, located adjacent to the electric arc furnace (EAF) steel plant. DRI can be either hot or cold charged to ...Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) is the product of the direct reduction of iron ore in the solid state by carbon monoxide and hydrogen derived from natural gas or coal. See more information about the production of DRI. Most gas-based direct reduction plants are part of integrated steel mini-mills, located adjacent to the electric arc furnace (EAF) steel plant. DRI can be either hot or cold charged to ...

MIDREX® — THE LEADING DRI PRODUCTION PROCESS

Midrex is an innovative ironmaking process, developed for the production of direct-reduced iron (DRI) from iron ores and primarily natural gas. Midrex is a gas-based shaft furnace process that converts iron oxides – in the form of pellets or lump ore – into direct reduced iron (DRI). The Midrex technology is highly adaptive to our customers’ needs, which is reflected in a broad variety ...Midrex is an innovative ironmaking process, developed for the production of direct-reduced iron (DRI) from iron ores and primarily natural gas. Midrex is a gas-based shaft furnace process that converts iron oxides – in the form of pellets or lump ore – into direct reduced iron (DRI). The Midrex technology is highly adaptive to our customers’ needs, which is reflected in a broad variety ...

Direct reduced iron process - lmmgroupcn

Direct reduced iron (DRI) process . In addition to the process route via the blast furnace process, there is another option for extracting crude steel from iron ores using the so-called direct reduced iron (DRI) process (secondary route).The starting point for the efforts to find an alternative to the blast furnace process was the relatively high process expenditure.Direct reduced iron (DRI) process . In addition to the process route via the blast furnace process, there is another option for extracting crude steel from iron ores using the so-called direct reduced iron (DRI) process (secondary route).The starting point for the efforts to find an alternative to the blast furnace process was the relatively high process expenditure.

Process Improvements for Direct Reduced Iron Melting in ...

23/02/2021  Keywords: electric arc furnace; direct reduced iron; process model; process improvement 1. Introduction The global steel industry is subject to significant changes in order to decrease its CO2 emission representing the most important contribution within the production industry sector to global CO2 emission, approximately 7%. Current steel productions routes are mainly (1) ore 23/02/2021  Keywords: electric arc furnace; direct reduced iron; process model; process improvement 1. Introduction The global steel industry is subject to significant changes in order to decrease its CO2 emission representing the most important contribution within the production industry sector to global CO2 emission, approximately 7%. Current steel productions routes are mainly (1) ore

The increasing role of direct reduced iron in global ...

process (internal or domestic scrap) The increasing role of direct reduced iron in global steelmaking by F. Grobler* and R.C.A. Minnitt† Synopsis Direct reduced iron (DRI), produced by the reaction between iron ore and reducing gasses, is used as a source of low-residual iron, in addition to ferrous scrap and pig iron, in the production of steelprocess (internal or domestic scrap) The increasing role of direct reduced iron in global steelmaking by F. Grobler* and R.C.A. Minnitt† Synopsis Direct reduced iron (DRI), produced by the reaction between iron ore and reducing gasses, is used as a source of low-residual iron, in addition to ferrous scrap and pig iron, in the production of steel

What is Direct Reduced Iron? (with picture)

09/02/2021  During the reduction process in the production of direct reduced iron, either coal or a special gas — commonly containing a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen — is used. This mixture functions as a reducing agent and facilitates the decrease in the iron's oxygen and carbon content. The result is a type of iron that is 90-97% pure, containing only minuscule amounts of carbon 09/02/2021  During the reduction process in the production of direct reduced iron, either coal or a special gas — commonly containing a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen — is used. This mixture functions as a reducing agent and facilitates the decrease in the iron's oxygen and carbon content. The result is a type of iron that is 90-97% pure, containing only minuscule amounts of carbon

STATE OF THE DIRECT REDUCTION AND REDUCTION SMELTING PROCESSES

- Direct reduced iron (DRI) ... The Midrex ™ Direct Reduction process is based upon a low pressure, moving bed shaft furnace where the reducing gas moves counter-current to the lump iron oxide . State of direct reduction and reduction smelting processes J. Min. Met. 38 (3 ‡ 4) B (2002) 129 Figure 3. Schematic Review of MIDREX PROCESS [2] ore or iron oxide pellet solids in the bed, Figure 3 ...- Direct reduced iron (DRI) ... The Midrex ™ Direct Reduction process is based upon a low pressure, moving bed shaft furnace where the reducing gas moves counter-current to the lump iron oxide . State of direct reduction and reduction smelting processes J. Min. Met. 38 (3 ‡ 4) B (2002) 129 Figure 3. Schematic Review of MIDREX PROCESS [2] ore or iron oxide pellet solids in the bed, Figure 3 ...

Introduction to direct reduction technology and outlook ...

The mixture is passed through the process gas Fig.1 - Direct reduced iron (a) having typical diameter of 5-18 mm. Hot briquetted iron (HBI) (b) having typical dimensions of 110x50x30 mm. La Metallurgia Italiana - n. 4 2016 27 Riduzione diretta heater to get most of the temperature required and then oxygen is injected in the transfer line just before the reactor in order to increase the ...The mixture is passed through the process gas Fig.1 - Direct reduced iron (a) having typical diameter of 5-18 mm. Hot briquetted iron (HBI) (b) having typical dimensions of 110x50x30 mm. La Metallurgia Italiana - n. 4 2016 27 Riduzione diretta heater to get most of the temperature required and then oxygen is injected in the transfer line just before the reactor in order to increase the ...

Nucor DRI Facility

into high-quality DRI (direct-reduced iron), which is the raw material used by Nucor’s steel mills. Not only does this process employ the latest technologies to reduce emissions, but it also provides a low-cost environment and operational flexibility. PROBLEM Due to the large quantities of natural gas used during the direct iron ore reduction process, Nucor needed to build its DRI plant in ...into high-quality DRI (direct-reduced iron), which is the raw material used by Nucor’s steel mills. Not only does this process employ the latest technologies to reduce emissions, but it also provides a low-cost environment and operational flexibility. PROBLEM Due to the large quantities of natural gas used during the direct iron ore reduction process, Nucor needed to build its DRI plant in ...

MIDREX® — THE LEADING DRI PRODUCTION PROCESS

Midrex is an innovative ironmaking process, developed for the production of direct-reduced iron (DRI) from iron ores and primarily natural gas. Midrex is a gas-based shaft furnace process that converts iron oxides – in the form of pellets or lump ore – into direct reduced iron Midrex is an innovative ironmaking process, developed for the production of direct-reduced iron (DRI) from iron ores and primarily natural gas. Midrex is a gas-based shaft furnace process that converts iron oxides – in the form of pellets or lump ore – into direct reduced iron

Direct reduced iron process - lmmgroupcn

Direct reduced iron (DRI) process . In addition to the process route via the blast furnace process, there is another option for extracting crude steel from iron ores using the so-called direct reduced iron (DRI) process (secondary route).The starting point for the efforts to find an alternative to the blast furnace process was the relatively high process Direct reduced iron (DRI) process . In addition to the process route via the blast furnace process, there is another option for extracting crude steel from iron ores using the so-called direct reduced iron (DRI) process (secondary route).The starting point for the efforts to find an alternative to the blast furnace process was the relatively high process

What is Direct Reduced Iron? (with picture)

09/02/2021  During the reduction process in the production of direct reduced iron, either coal or a special gas — commonly containing a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen — is used. This mixture functions as a reducing agent and facilitates the decrease in the iron's oxygen and carbon content. The result is a type of iron 09/02/2021  During the reduction process in the production of direct reduced iron, either coal or a special gas — commonly containing a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen — is used. This mixture functions as a reducing agent and facilitates the decrease in the iron's oxygen and carbon content. The result is a type of iron

Process Improvements for Direct Reduced Iron Melting in ...

23/02/2021  Keywords: electric arc furnace; direct reduced iron; process model; process improvement 1. Introduction The global steel industry is subject to significant changes in order to decrease its CO2 emission representing the most important contribution within the production industry sector to global CO2 emission, approximately 7%. Current steel productions routes are mainly (1) ore 23/02/2021  Keywords: electric arc furnace; direct reduced iron; process model; process improvement 1. Introduction The global steel industry is subject to significant changes in order to decrease its CO2 emission representing the most important contribution within the production industry sector to global CO2 emission, approximately 7%. Current steel productions routes are mainly (1) ore

The increasing role of direct reduced iron in global ...

process (internal or domestic scrap) The increasing role of direct reduced iron in global steelmaking by F. Grobler* and R.C.A. Minnitt† Synopsis Direct reduced iron (DRI), produced by the reaction between iron ore and reducing gasses, is used as a source of low-residual iron, in addition to ferrous scrap and pig iron, in the production of steelprocess (internal or domestic scrap) The increasing role of direct reduced iron in global steelmaking by F. Grobler* and R.C.A. Minnitt† Synopsis Direct reduced iron (DRI), produced by the reaction between iron ore and reducing gasses, is used as a source of low-residual iron, in addition to ferrous scrap and pig iron, in the production of steel

Introduction to direct reduction technology and outlook ...

The mixture is passed through the process gas Fig.1 - Direct reduced iron (a) having typical diameter of 5-18 mm. Hot briquetted iron (HBI) (b) having typical dimensions of 110x50x30 mm. La Metallurgia Italiana - n. 4 2016 27 Riduzione diretta heater to get most of the temperature required and then oxygen is injected in the transfer line just before the reactor in order to increase the ...The mixture is passed through the process gas Fig.1 - Direct reduced iron (a) having typical diameter of 5-18 mm. Hot briquetted iron (HBI) (b) having typical dimensions of 110x50x30 mm. La Metallurgia Italiana - n. 4 2016 27 Riduzione diretta heater to get most of the temperature required and then oxygen is injected in the transfer line just before the reactor in order to increase the ...

Nucor DRI Facility

into high-quality DRI (direct-reduced iron), which is the raw material used by Nucor’s steel mills. Not only does this process employ the latest technologies to reduce emissions, but it also provides a low-cost environment and operational flexibility. PROBLEM Due to the large quantities of natural gas used during the direct iron ore reduction process, Nucor needed to build its DRI plant in ...into high-quality DRI (direct-reduced iron), which is the raw material used by Nucor’s steel mills. Not only does this process employ the latest technologies to reduce emissions, but it also provides a low-cost environment and operational flexibility. PROBLEM Due to the large quantities of natural gas used during the direct iron ore reduction process, Nucor needed to build its DRI plant in ...

Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) Market Industry Analysis ...

As direct reduced iron significantly lowers the need for batch charges that eventually raises the overall cost-efficiency and productivity of the process, DRI remains among the favored feed for electric arc furnaces (EAF) DRI market is set for 7% growth in 2021, as rise in EAF steel production is set to drive the consumption of DRI; Increasing concerns regarding reduced CO2 emissions and ...As direct reduced iron significantly lowers the need for batch charges that eventually raises the overall cost-efficiency and productivity of the process, DRI remains among the favored feed for electric arc furnaces (EAF) DRI market is set for 7% growth in 2021, as rise in EAF steel production is set to drive the consumption of DRI; Increasing concerns regarding reduced CO2 emissions and ...

Industrial History: Green Steel: Direct Reduced Iron (DRI ...

31/12/2020  Mitsubishi Heavy's plant adopts a process called direct reduced iron, or DRI. New blast furnaces require trillions of yen (1 trillion yen equals $9.6 billion) in investment. Although DRI equipment produces less steel, the investment is estimated at less than half of blast furnaces. For DRI to attain the same level of cost-competitiveness as blast furnaces, low-cost hydrogen will be key. Market ...31/12/2020  Mitsubishi Heavy's plant adopts a process called direct reduced iron, or DRI. New blast furnaces require trillions of yen (1 trillion yen equals $9.6 billion) in investment. Although DRI equipment produces less steel, the investment is estimated at less than half of blast furnaces. For DRI to attain the same level of cost-competitiveness as blast furnaces, low-cost hydrogen will be key. Market ...

Understanding the different direct reduced iron products ...

DRI – Direct reduced iron Normally in the form of sponge pellets or lumps varying between 6 and 25mm nominal diameter, but often 8 to 12mm diameter. The IMO BC Code classes this product as “a material that is hazardous only when in bulk” (MHB). It can be found under the BC Code as BC015. If this product becomes wet it can significantly overheat and emit hydrogen gas. Thus it must be ...DRI – Direct reduced iron Normally in the form of sponge pellets or lumps varying between 6 and 25mm nominal diameter, but often 8 to 12mm diameter. The IMO BC Code classes this product as “a material that is hazardous only when in bulk” (MHB). It can be found under the BC Code as BC015. If this product becomes wet it can significantly overheat and emit hydrogen gas. Thus it must be ...

What is Direct Reduced Iron? (with picture)

09/02/2021  During the reduction process in the production of direct reduced iron, either coal or a special gas — commonly containing a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen — is used. This mixture functions as a reducing agent and facilitates the decrease in the iron's oxygen and carbon content. The result is a type of iron 09/02/2021  During the reduction process in the production of direct reduced iron, either coal or a special gas — commonly containing a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen — is used. This mixture functions as a reducing agent and facilitates the decrease in the iron's oxygen and carbon content. The result is a type of iron

Direct-reduced iron - URM-Company

The metal product of the above process is direct-reduced iron (DRI) that is not contaminated with carbon, due to lack of direct interaction between ore and carbon, as well as with various impurities that could potentially come from coke. This product contains about 1 % carbon and 90 % Fe. It is also not suitable for the production of vital metal parts, and it can only be used as a raw material ...The metal product of the above process is direct-reduced iron (DRI) that is not contaminated with carbon, due to lack of direct interaction between ore and carbon, as well as with various impurities that could potentially come from coke. This product contains about 1 % carbon and 90 % Fe. It is also not suitable for the production of vital metal parts, and it can only be used as a raw material ...

Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) Production Plant

Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) Production Plant NIPPON STEEL ENGINEERING CO., LTD. Basic Concept or Summary S-16 u A direct reduced iron (DRI) production plant is a shaft reduction furnace to produce DRI with large metal iron content by directly reducing iron ore (or iron ore pellets) with reducing gases. u While the produced DRI is mainly used as the raw material of electric steelmaking, Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) Production Plant NIPPON STEEL ENGINEERING CO., LTD. Basic Concept or Summary S-16 u A direct reduced iron (DRI) production plant is a shaft reduction furnace to produce DRI with large metal iron content by directly reducing iron ore (or iron ore pellets) with reducing gases. u While the produced DRI is mainly used as the raw material of electric steelmaking,

Industrial History: Green Steel: Direct Reduced Iron (DRI ...

31/12/2020  Mitsubishi Heavy's plant adopts a process called direct reduced iron, or DRI. New blast furnaces require trillions of yen (1 trillion yen equals $9.6 billion) in investment. Although DRI equipment produces less steel, the investment is estimated at less than half of blast furnaces. For DRI to attain the same level of cost-competitiveness as blast furnaces, low-cost hydrogen will be key. Market ...31/12/2020  Mitsubishi Heavy's plant adopts a process called direct reduced iron, or DRI. New blast furnaces require trillions of yen (1 trillion yen equals $9.6 billion) in investment. Although DRI equipment produces less steel, the investment is estimated at less than half of blast furnaces. For DRI to attain the same level of cost-competitiveness as blast furnaces, low-cost hydrogen will be key. Market ...

Introduction to direct reduction technology and outlook ...

The mixture is passed through the process gas Fig.1 - Direct reduced iron (a) having typical diameter of 5-18 mm. Hot briquetted iron (HBI) (b) having typical dimensions of 110x50x30 mm. La Metallurgia Italiana - n. 4 2016 27 Riduzione diretta heater to get most of the temperature required and then oxygen is injected in the transfer line just before the reactor in order to increase the ...The mixture is passed through the process gas Fig.1 - Direct reduced iron (a) having typical diameter of 5-18 mm. Hot briquetted iron (HBI) (b) having typical dimensions of 110x50x30 mm. La Metallurgia Italiana - n. 4 2016 27 Riduzione diretta heater to get most of the temperature required and then oxygen is injected in the transfer line just before the reactor in order to increase the ...

Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) Market Industry Analysis ...

As direct reduced iron significantly lowers the need for batch charges that eventually raises the overall cost-efficiency and productivity of the process, DRI remains among the favored feed for electric arc furnaces (EAF) DRI market is set for 7% growth in 2021, as rise in EAF steel production is set to drive the consumption of DRI; Increasing concerns regarding reduced CO2 emissions and ...As direct reduced iron significantly lowers the need for batch charges that eventually raises the overall cost-efficiency and productivity of the process, DRI remains among the favored feed for electric arc furnaces (EAF) DRI market is set for 7% growth in 2021, as rise in EAF steel production is set to drive the consumption of DRI; Increasing concerns regarding reduced CO2 emissions and ...

Direct Reduced Iron - AIST

Direct Reduced Iron Technology Committee MISSION: To focus on the emerging market and technological trends for the production, handling, and use of direct reduced iron (DRI) and hot briquetted iron (HBI) products as well as present and future alternative iron production technology.Direct Reduced Iron Technology Committee MISSION: To focus on the emerging market and technological trends for the production, handling, and use of direct reduced iron (DRI) and hot briquetted iron (HBI) products as well as present and future alternative iron production technology.

Direct Reduced Iron Technologies Measures Middle

10/12/2012  Direct Reduced Iron Technologies Measures. Leave a comment; Technology or Measure Energy Savings Potential CO2 Emission Reduction Potential Based on Literature Costs Development Status; Midrex© Process: Total primary energy demand of the process is around 10.4 GJ/t. The natural gas consumption of eficiency Midrex plants are aruond 9.62GJ/t-DRI. Some 10/12/2012  Direct Reduced Iron Technologies Measures. Leave a comment; Technology or Measure Energy Savings Potential CO2 Emission Reduction Potential Based on Literature Costs Development Status; Midrex© Process: Total primary energy demand of the process is around 10.4 GJ/t. The natural gas consumption of eficiency Midrex plants are aruond 9.62GJ/t-DRI. Some

Low-Carbon Production of Iron Steel: Technology

08/03/2021  Direct Reduced Iron (DRI): This iron production process directly reduces iron ore in solid-state with the reaction temperature below the melting point of iron. Reducing gases are produced from natural gas (gas-based DRI) or coal (coal-based DRI) called syngas, a mixture of H2 and CO. Although DRI production is more energy efficient than pig iron production from BF, additional processing ...08/03/2021  Direct Reduced Iron (DRI): This iron production process directly reduces iron ore in solid-state with the reaction temperature below the melting point of iron. Reducing gases are produced from natural gas (gas-based DRI) or coal (coal-based DRI) called syngas, a mixture of H2 and CO. Although DRI production is more energy efficient than pig iron production from BF, additional processing ...

MIDREX Processes - KOBELCO

process was built in Qatar for producing direct reduced iron, Kobe Steel and MIDREX Technologies, Inc., have collaborated to make many technical improvements in the process. The largest MIDREX module, having an annual production capacity of 1.8 million tones, began operation in 2007. The MIDREX module, together with a melt shop, now has a production capacity comparable to that of a blast ...process was built in Qatar for producing direct reduced iron, Kobe Steel and MIDREX Technologies, Inc., have collaborated to make many technical improvements in the process. The largest MIDREX module, having an annual production capacity of 1.8 million tones, began operation in 2007. The MIDREX module, together with a melt shop, now has a production capacity comparable to that of a blast ...